Bladder and urethra

The human bladder is located in the lower abdomen. Its main task is to store urine, which is produced around the clock by the kidneys, and to regularly evacuate it once a certain capacity is reached.

The bladder has an average capacity of 350–450 ml in women and 400–500 ml in men. Following urination, the renal pressure is extremely low. It steadily increases with an increasing amount of urine. When the bladder is full, the pressure is so strong that we feel the urge to urinate via pressure sensors in the bladder wall and sensory nerves. Relaxation of the bladder sphincter leads to an opening of the bladder outlet. The bladder wall muscles contract, and urine is emptied from the bladder. This process is highly complex and requires an intact brain and spinal cord as well as a fully functioning nervous system. Disturbances in this regulatory loop can lead to incontinence.

Illnesses and disorders of the bladder and urethra


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Additional organs

Kidney and ureter

The kidney is a paired organ. The bean-shaped kidneys are located below the diaphragm at the posterior abdominal wall.

Illnesses, treatments


The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder in the pelvic area of the male anatomy.

Illnesses, treatments

Male sex organs

The male sexual organs consist of the penis and testicles, the epididymis, and seminal ducts, which are enclosed by the scrotum. 

Illnesses, treatments